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And Every Eye Shall See Him…Every Eye on the PLANET?

There is a verse in Revelation which is used by many who demand that the Lord Messiah MUST return in a physical, visible presence such that “every eye” on planet earth will see his return.  The verse is found in Revelation 1:7.  Let’s take a closer look to see if what is suggested by those holding to a futurist view of eschatology (99.9% of Christendom) are justified in applying this verse as a proof text to support their view.

Revelation 1:7 [KVJ]
Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen.

I know from reading several similarly-worded verses in the Old Testament that this verse is not worded so as to suggest that “they also which pierced him” is referring to an additional group of people being added to a yet larger group who would also see him at his coming.  I think the KJV does an absolutely atrocious job of rendering the language in this verse and I think you’ll soon agree. Young’s Literal Translation reveals this verse to be much more in line with many instances of similar phraseology from the Old Testament.

Revelation 1:7 [YLT]
Lo, he doth come with the clouds, and see him shall every eye, EVEN THOSE who did pierce him, and wail because of him shall all the tribes of the land. Yes! Amen!

That phrase “EVEN THOSE who did pierce him” is very similar to verbiage used in several O.T. verses such as:

Numbers 3:22 [KJV]
Those that were numbered of them, according to the number of all the males, from a month old and upward, EVEN THOSE that were numbered of them were seven thousand and five hundred.

Here is an extremely CLEAR example where the phrase “even those” refers directly BACK to the preceding group of “Those that were numbered of them.” It’s just a restatement of the very same original group! This same phraseology is repeated several times in Numbers 4:44, 4:48, & 14:37.

Let’s look at a few more examples in some other books of the O.T. to see if the application is consistent:

1 Kings 8:4 [KJV]
And they brought up the ark of the LORD, and the tabernacle of the congregation, and all the holy vessels that were in the tabernacle, EVEN THOSE did the priests and the Levites bring up.

Ezra 1:7-8 [KJV]
Also Cyrus the king brought forth the vessels of the house of the LORD, which Nebuchadnezzar had brought forth out of Jerusalem, and had put them in the house of his gods; EVEN THOSE did Cyrus king of Persia bring forth by the hand of Mithredath the treasurer, and numbered them unto Sheshbazzar, the prince of Judah.

Zechariah 7:5 [KJV]
Speak unto all the people of the land, and to the priests, saying, When ye fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh month, EVEN THOSE seventy years, did ye at all fast unto me, even to me?

Wow! Seems to be pretty consistent to me! How about the N.T. though?

Hebrews 5:14 [KJV]
But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, EVEN THOSE who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.

Well well! What do we have HERE? Looks like the KJV translators, EVEN THOSE WHO TRANSLATED, have NO problem rendering this verbiage correctly when it doesn’t conflict with their futurist presuppositions.

Now, let’s compare the Greek and English in Hebrews 5:14 with that of Revelation 1:7 to see if they are the same or at least similar?

Revelation 1:7 [YLT]
Lo, he doth come with the clouds, and see him shall every eye, EVEN THOSE who did pierce him, and wail because of him shall all the tribes of the land. Yes! Amen!

Revelation 1:7 [Tischendorf]
Ἰδοὺ ἔρχεται μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν, καὶ ὄψεται αὐτὸν πᾶς ὀφθαλμὸς καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν, καὶ κόψονται ἐπ’ αὐτὸν πᾶσαι αἱ φυλαὶ τῆς γῆς. ναί, ἀμήν.

Hebrews 5:14 [KJV]
But strong meat belongeth to them that are of full age, EVEN THOSE who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern both good and evil.

Hebrews 5:14 [Tischendorf]
τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή, τῶν διὰ τὴν ἕξιν τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα ἐχόντων πρὸς διάκρισιν καλοῦ τε καὶ κακοῦ.

They are not exact in the Greek, but what’s interesting here is that the KJV translators actually ADD the phrase “even those” in English to Hebrews 5:14 to make it align perfectly with the phraseology rendered in the O.T.!

In Rev 1:7 [YLT], the Greek phrase “καὶ οἵτινες αὐτὸν ἐξεκέντησαν” is rendered “even those who did pierce him” in the YLT, applying “καὶ” as a conjunctive particle and “οἵτινες” as a relative pronoun.

In Hebrews 5:14 [KJV], the Greek “τῶν διὰ τὴν ἕξιν” is rendered “EVEN THOSE who by reason of use” in the KJV, applying τῶν as a demonstrative pronoun.

Make of the grammatical analysis what you will, but it is pretty clear to me that this phrase in Revelation 1:7 is EXACTLY the same verbiage from the O.T. where the phrase “EVEN THOSE” appears in either the YLT or the KJV. Every time, without fail, when that phrase is rendered by the translators, it has the same power and effect…always referring back to the SAME PRECEDING GROUP.

So, to wrap this up… Here is what Revelations 1:7 means:

Every Eye Shall See Him = Even Those Who Pierced Him

The part of the phrase which contains “even those who” is simply giving a more perfect identification of the preceding group mentioned.  It does NOT mean literally every eye on the planet will see Christ at his coming!




A New Testament Eschatological Study of Greek Genea – Part Two

A New Testament Eschatological Study of Greek

Part Two – “genea” [γενεά]


Strong – G1074




From (a presumed derivative of) G1085; a generation; by implication an age (the period or the persons): – age, generation, nation, time.


Thayer – G1074



Thayer Definition:

1) fathered, birth, nativity

2) that which has been begotten, men of the same stock, a family

2a) the several ranks of natural descent, the successive members of a genealogy

2b) metaphorically a group of men very like each other in endowments, pursuits, character

2b1) especially in a bad sense, a perverse nation

3) the whole multitude of men living at the same time

4) an age (i.e. the time ordinarily occupied be each successive generation), a space of 30 – 33 years

Part of Speech: noun feminine

A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: from (a presumed derivative of) G1085

Citing in TDNT: 1:662, 114


King James Concordance – Total KJV NT Occurrences: 42

generation, 31

Mat_11:16, Mat_12:39, Mat_12:41-42 (2), Mat_12:45, Mat_16:4, Mat_17:17, Mat_23:36, Mat_24:34, Mar_8:12 (2), Mar_8:38, Mar_9:19, Mar_13:30, Luk_1:50 (2), Luk_7:31, Luk_9:41, Luk_11:29-32 (4), Luk_11:50-51 (2), Luk_16:8, Luk_17:25, Luk_21:32, Act_2:40, Act_8:33, Act_13:36, Heb_3:10

generations, 6

Mat_1:17 (4), Luk_1:48, Col_1:26

ages, 2

Eph_3:5, Eph_3:21

nation, 1


time, 1


times, 1



Concordance to the Greek Scriptures – G3195

Total NT Occurrences: 42

γενεα (16)

Mat_12:39, Mat_12:45, Mat_16:4, Mat_17:17, Mat_24:34, Mar_8:12 (2), Mar_8:38, Mar_9:19, Mar_13:30, Luk_9:41, Luk_11:29-30 (2), Luk_21:32, Act_13:36, Heb_3:10

γενεαι (5)

Mat_1:17 (4), Luk_1:48

γενεαις (2)

Act_14:16, Eph_3:5

γενεαν (4)

Mat_11:16, Mat_23:36, Luk_16:8, Act_8:33

γενεας (12)

Mat_12:41-42 (2), Luk_1:50, Luk_7:31, Luk_11:31-32 (2), Luk_11:50-51 (2), Luk_17:25, Act_2:40, Eph_3:21, Php_2:15

γενεων (3)

Luk_1:50, Act_15:21, Col_1:26


NT GREEK Concordance

Mat_1:17  Mat_11:16  Mat_12:39  Mat_12:41-42  Mat_12:45  Mat_16:4  Mat_17:17  Mat_23:36  Mat_24:34  Mar_8:12  Mar_8:38  Mar_9:19  Mar_13:30  Luk_1:48  Luk_1:50  Luk_7:31  Luk_9:41  Luk_11:29-32  Luk_11:50-51  Luk_16:8  Luk_17:25  Luk_21:32  Act_2:40  Act_8:33  Act_13:36  Act_14:16  Act_15:21  Eph_3:5  Eph_3:21  Php_2:15  Col_1:26  Heb_3:10


Red Scripture Text = Words of Christ 

Original study by Donald Hochner in purple, copied from

(with additional scripture references and comments in green by Kingdom Christian)

This is the second of five articles to examine the Greek words, since the full Preterist view is consistent with the Scripture, the Greek words in the NT, and the historical records. Most Futurists’ views have fallen short in their failure to properly take into account the historical-grammatical-cultural context of the prophecies (specifically what they meant to their first-century audience). One of many problems some futurists have is identifying the correct definition of the word, “generation.” They interpret the word, “generation” as it is used today or in the future. The Bible was written for us, but it was not written to us. We will look into the eschatological passages of the Bible with this word “generation.” The Bible I am using is the New American Standard Bible Authorized King James Version (KC).

When you see the phase “this generation,” ask yourself, the question, “which generation?” We can look up the word “generation” in Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon of the NT, and we can see that the Greek word is “genea.” It says, “The whole multitude of men living at the same time.” Also we find in William F. Arndt and Wilber Gingrich, A Greek-English Lexicon of the NT and Other Early Christian Literature: “basically, the sum total of those born at the same time, expanded to include all those living at a given time. Contemporaries.”

I have noticed that many Bible commentators dance around the meaning of the word “generation.” Some say that Jesus was speaking to a generation that was not going to exist until thousands of years in the future. Others claim that the whole Jewish “race” was in view. Those are NOT sound Biblical interpretations. The Greek word “genos” rather than “genea” is the best translated “race” as in Acts 7:19; 17:28; Gal. 1:14; Phil. 3:5; 1 Peter 2:9. Take a look at the following passages that contain the word “generation,” which is the period from 30-70 AD (40 years):

Mat 1:17  So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations [genea]; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.

Mat 11:16  But whereunto shall I liken this generation [genea]? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and calling unto their fellows,  (In previous verses Jesus was talking about John the Baptist, who was Elijah the prophet in Mal. 4:5,6 (see Luke 1:13-17 & Matt. 17:10-13) before the great and terrible day of the Lord in 66- 70 AD. I would recommend you to read some of articles in other links at the end of this article [see ]. So, Jesus cannot compare “this” generation of the wicked with any other generation.)

Mat 12:39  But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation [genea] seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:  Clearly, Jesus was speaking to the Jewish leaders, an evil and adulterous generation that was seeking for a sign. Let us look at the illustration of Jonah which Jesus said applied to Him:

  • There was a great storm in which Jonah was caught and he was sleeping. The men on the boat were afraid. Then the sea was calmed supernaturally (Jonah 1:4-16).
  • There was a great storm in which Jesus was caught and He was sleeping. The disciples on the boat were afraid. Then the sea was calmed supernaturally (Mark 4:37-39).
  • Jonah was in the great fish for 3 days and 3 nights (Jonah 1:17).
  • Jesus was in the tomb for 3 days and 3 nights (Matt. 12:40).
  • God had supernaturally raised Jonah out of the great fish’s belly of Sheol (2:2, 10).
  • God had supernaturally raised Jesus out of the tomb and Hades “vomited” Him (Acts 2:31).
  • Jonah was a sign to Nineveh.
  • Jesus was a sign to Jerusalem.
  • Jonah preached to the Ninevites that God was going to destroy them in 40 days (Jonah 3:4).
  • Jesus (and His apostles) preached to the Jews in Jerusalem that God was going to destroy them in that generation (40 years – Matt. 23:31-38).
  • 40 days of preaching caused Nineveh to repent.
  • 40 years of preaching did not get Jerusalem to repent!
  • God called Nineveh the great city (Jonah 1:2; 3:2; 4:11).
  • God called Jerusalem the great city (Rev. 11:8; 17:3, 5, 18).


Mat 12:41-42  The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation [genea], and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.  The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation [genea], and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here. (Jesus was saying that the men of Nineveh and the Queen of the South would rise up (from the dead) with this generation at the judgment. This is CRITICAL! Obviously, it has occurred in the first century, otherwise Jesus is a false prophet. Case closed and court adjourned.)


Mat 12:43-45  When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none.  Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished. Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation [genea]. (When Jesus says “Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.” He was talking about how the demoniac spirits will get worse in the generation to which He was speaking.)


Mat 16:4  A wicked and adulterous generation [genea] seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed. (Jesus was repeatedly saying that the Jewish leaders were still seeking after a sign in an evil and adulterous generation.)


Mat 17:17  Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation [genea], how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him hither to me.  (Jesus knew many were in the unbelieving and perverted generation He was addressing- a generation with much demoniac activity around them.)


Mat 23:34-36  Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes: and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. [genea]  (Jesus pronounced His “woes” on the Jewish leaders in this chapter (read all of Matt. 23). Jesus ended His indictment of Israel’s first century religious leaders with this shocking surprise: “Behold, your house (temple) is left unto you desolate!” (v. 38). The temple was burned and destroyed in 70 AD by the Roman armies.) (Mat 23:35 speaks of “all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias.”  This blood, along with that of Jesus’ own prophets and apostles that would be shed starting with the stoning of Stephen until 70 AD, is the blood of the martyrs spoken of in Revelations 6:9-11 which is to be avenged at the “wrath of the Lamb” coming in judgment of the “city that killed the prophets,” which is Jerusalem.)


Mat 24:34  Verily I say unto you, This generation [genea] shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled. (Clearly, Jesus answered His disciples’ questions stating the events in this chapter would come upon their generation. Read some of Jesus’ parables that apply to that generation to whom He was speaking (Matt. 21:33-46; 22:1-14 and Luke 19:11-27, 41-44). We should not miss the straightforward manner of which Jesus spoke concerning the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD.

Let me add something about Matt. 24 from Eusebius, the Christian historian from the late third century. He said, “The whole body, however, of the church at Jerusalem, having been commanded by a divine revelation, given men of approved piety there before the war, removed from the city, and dwelt at a certain town beyond the Jordan called Pella. Here, those that believed in Christ, having removed from Jerusalem, as if holy men had entirely abandoned the royal city itself, and the whole land of Judea; the divine justice, for their crimes against Christ and his apostles, finally overtook them, totally destroying the whole generation of these evildoers from the earth…these facts, as well as the whole tenor of the war, and each particular of its progress, when finally the abomination of desolation, according to the prophetic declaration, stood in the very temple of God, so celebrated of old, but which now was approaching its total downfall and final destruction by fire; all this, I say any one that wishes may see accurately stated in the history written by Josephus.” (Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, Book 3, Ch. 5))  (Some scholars even go so far as to assert that the inspired apostles must have been mistaken and simply misunderstood or failed to comprehend what Jesus was saying about “this generation.”  It is the epitome of arrogance and folly to insinuate that Holy Spirit-inspired apostles of Christ MUST have been “mistaken” in their understanding of their MASTER’S VERY OWN WORDS in order to attempt to validate and justify one’s own erroneous eschatological predilections 2000+ years after-the-fact. Such blatant, unadulterated psychopathy should not be tolerated as “biblical exegesis.”) 


Mar 8:12  And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation [genea].


Mar 8:38-9:1  Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me and of my words in this adulterous and sinful generation [genea]; of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels. And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here, which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power.  (This is one of clearest and most powerful messages by the mouth of Jesus. We cannot get around this one with the Futurist’s views because the Lord was talking to His disciples, and not some absent and future third parties. Bingo! Case closed!) (It is difficult to imagine a more direct, unequivocal, unvarnished statement from Christ that his Parousia would occur in the first century timeframe. All suppositions and theories to the contrary fail here at the words of our Lord himself who puts all doubt out of reach of designing men who would have you believe that a future “coming of the Lord” is still somehow miraculously due to occur.  To believe that, one would have to hallucinate that John the apostle himself is somehow still alive on Patmos, yet awaiting his redemption to “draw nigh.”)


Mar 9:19  He answereth him, and saith, O faithless generation [genea], how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? bring him unto me.  (See Mat 17:17 comments above.)


Mar 13:30  Verily I say unto you, that this generation [genea] shall not pass, till all these things be done.  (See Mat 24:34 comments above.)


Luk 1:48, 50  For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for, behold, from henceforth all generations [genea] shall call me blessed.  And his mercy is on them that fear him from generation [genea]  to generation [genea].


Luk 7:31  And the Lord said, Whereunto then shall I liken the men of this generation [genea]? and to what are they like?


Luk 9:41  And Jesus answering said, O faithless and perverse generation [genea], how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither.


Luk 11:29-32  And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation [genea]: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet.  For as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation [genea].  The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation [genea], and condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, a greater than Solomon is here.  The men of Nineve shall rise up in the judgment with this generation [genea], and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.  (The same as in Matt. 12:41, 42. Jesus repeatedly said “this generation” seven times in this chapter. How does the Futurist deal with this???) (My answer to “how does the Futurist deal with this???” is that he deals with it by trying to wrest the clear message of the scripture in ways that fit his pre-existing, hand-me-down futurist paradigm.  Why?  It is because modern Christendom is HEAVILY invested in a futurist eschatological perspective.  Enormous credibility stands to be LOST if the general futurist eschatological narrative which has been handed down through two millenniums of church history is suddenly acknowledged to be patently FALSE.  This is a potentially cataclysmic issue which I believe needs to be considered from many perspectives.  But I am convinced that, even if it causes upheaval within the Church, then it will ultimately be for the best because TRUTH MUST PREVAIL!  The Church cannot possibly continue to build upon a foundation of sinking sand and THAT is what the futurist eschatology represents.  It is an outright repudiation of Christ’s credibility as a Prophet to hold that he did not return exactly, in both time and manner, as he predicted would happen…in HIS generation.  It’s time to face the truth and begin proclaiming what is RIGHT about the Kingdom of God to the world.  It’s time we started doing what we were redeemed to do…and that is glorify God and his Messiah!!  It’s time we actually begin to DISCERN THE KINGDOM in the fullness of TRUTH, rather than through the “rose colored glasses” of two millenniums of hand-me-down ERROR.  Once again, Let GOD be true, but every man a LIAR!)


Luk 11:50-51  That the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation [genea];  From the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation. [genea]  (Jesus was saying from the beginning (from Abel) to that generation (by 70 AD), all of these people shall rise up in the judgment. Read the context in verses 46 to 54 and the other passages from this article.  Also see Mat 23:36.) (This passage is speaking about the vengeance of the martyrs which is a motif that is spoken of in Revelation 6:9-11 with the opening of the Fifth Seal where the martyrs are told rest yet for a little season until their brethren and fellowservants should be killed as they were.  The avenging of their deaths (and Christ’s!) was a major real and spiritual event that is associated irrefutably with the Parousia.)


Luk 16:8  And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation [genea] wiser than the children of light.

Luk 17:25  But first must he suffer many things, and be rejected of this generation. [genea] (Read in this context, verses 22-37. All these things Jesus said would be upon His generation but first He must suffer many things and be rejected by the Jewish people.)


Luk 21:32  Verily I say unto you, This generation [genea] shall not pass away, till all be fulfilled.  (As we have already read, Jesus said this in Matt. 24:34 (and Mark 13:30) but notice in Luke 21:22 says “For these be the days of VENGEANCE, THAT ALL THINGS WHICH ARE WRITTEN MAY BE FULFILLED.” This is a very important passage because it teaches that all things written in Scripture were fulfilled by 70 AD. Also notice in verse 23, “But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people.” Of which land and people was Jesus speaking this context? It was the land of Israel and the Jewish people of HIS GENERATION. (KC))


Act 2:40  And with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation [genea]. (Read Acts 2:16-21 in Peter’s sermon. He told the Jewish people they were living in the last days (Heb. 1:2) before the great and glorious day of the Lord in their generation. Read Moses’ warning for the Jewish people in the future generations in Deut. 28-32.)


Act 8:33  In his humiliation his judgment was taken away: and who shall declare his generation? [genea] for his life is taken from the earth.


Act 13:36  For David, after he had served his own generation [genea] by the will of God, fell on sleep, and was laid unto his fathers, and saw corruption:


Act 14:16  Who in times [genea: GENERATIONS] past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways. (Although there is the element of time involved in the etymology of genea, it is only within the strict context of a specific group of people having been born within the same general timeframe, usually recognized roughly to be a span of from 30 to 40 years.  “Generation” would be a more accurate, rendering of genea here.) 


Act 15:21  For Moses of old time [ex genea archaios: FROM GENERATIONS OF OLD] hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day.  (I can see no valid reason to eliminate the word “generations” here in favor of “old time.”  To do so, completely destroys the context of “people born in relation to time.”  It is completely insufficient to convey what was actually written.  Truly, the phrase “something was lost in the translation” applies here.)


Eph 3:5  Which in other ages [genea: GENERATIONS] was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;  (The rendering here of genea as “ages” is baffling to me. If Paul had truly meant “ages” he simply would have used the Greek aion which relates directly to time without regard to people.  But he specifically chose the term genea which relates uniquely to a combination of “people born in relation to time.”  This translation is just erroneous.  See notes on Col 1:26 below!)


Eph 3:21  Unto him be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages [genea: GENERATIONS], world without end. Amen.  (Again, Paul is speaking in the context of “people born in relation to time” which is “generations” not “ages.”  Same problem as Eph 3:5 above.  See notes for Col 1:26 below!  The translators for the KJV completely TRASHED the ending of this verse.  There are also two instances of the Greek word “aion” from our fifth study which are rendered arbitrarily as “world without end.”  Here is the same verse from Young’s Literal: Eph 3:21 [YLT] “to Him is the glory in the assembly in Christ Jesus, to all the generations of the age of the ages. Amen.)


Php 2:14-16  Do all things without murmurings and disputings: That ye may be blameless and harmless, the sons of God, without rebuke, in the midst of a crooked and perverse nation [genea: GENERATION], among whom ye shine as lights in the world; Holding forth the word of life; that I may rejoice in the day of Christ, that I have not run in vain, neither laboured in vain.  (Clearly, Paul knew he was in the midst of perverse generation because the day of Christ is at hand.)  (This is another example of the complete mistranslation of genea as if it were genos or ethnos.)


Col 1:26  Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages [aion: AGES] and from generations [genea: GENERATIONS], but now is made manifest to his saints:  (This verse illustrates PERFECTLY what I spoke about in regards to Eph 3:5, 21!  Here Paul specifically uses BOTH aion and genea in the very same verse because he wants to emphasize (and understands) the differences between both terms….one relates to time only and the other relates to people IN time.)


Heb 3:7-11  Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice, Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: When your fathers tempted me, proved me, and saw my works forty years.  Wherefore I was grieved with that generation [genea], and said, They do alway err in their heart; and they have not known my ways.  So I sware in my wrath, They shall not enter into my rest.) (The writer warned the Jewish Christians not to fall back into Judaism as the Israelites did in the wilderness for 40 years with Moses. He further shows that many did not enter the typical rest (promised land) because of unbelief or apostasy, thereby exhorting the believers to remain faithful lest they fall after the same example of unbelief. That generation was a “wilderness” period for the church (30 to 70 AD). Now we have entered His rest and inherited the kingdom of God, New Jerusalem since 70 AD. Read and study carefully in chapters 3 and 4 of this book. [Hebrews])


Lastly, here is a quotation from the Jewish historian, Josephus, which he wrote about the Jewish War in his generation. When the Jews revolted against Rome, he wrote, “It is, therefore, impossible to go distinctly over every instance of these men’s iniquity. I shall, therefore, speak my mind here at once briefly, that neither did any other city ever suffer such miseries, nor did any age ever breed a generation more fruitful in wickedness than this was, from the beginning of the world” (Josephus’ War V:X:5 c.f. V:XIII:6; Matt. 24:21; Dan. 12:1) (emphasis mine DWH). What Josephus saw after the destruction of Jerusalem, he wrote, “…and made the whole city run down with blood, to such a degree indeed that the fire of many of the houses was quenched with these men’s blood. And truly so it happened, that though the slayers left off at the evening, yet did the fire greatly prevail in the night; and as all was burning, came that eighth day of the month Gorpieus [Elul], upon Jerusalem, a city that had been liable to so many miseries during this siege, that had it always enjoyed as much happiness from its first foundation, it would certainly have been the envy of the world. Nor did it on any other account so much deserve these sore misfortunes, as by producing such a generation of men as were the occasion of this its overthrow” (Josephus’ Wars VII.IX.5).

Now, I challenge you to determine which of these verses refers to a time of our future. Did you know that the liberal responds about this in the following way: “We know Jesus didn’t return in the first century. Therefore, the NT writers were mistaken in their predictions of an imminent return; and since inspired men cannot write mistaken things, they must not have been inspired!” When God communicates time to man, He reasons with His people in a way that man can understand Him. So, if the futurists really want to get to the heart of the issue, they had better deal with the immanency statements. In other words, to say that “this generation, at hand, quickly, or near” meant two thousands years is to put the integrity of the NT at risk.

Since I am Reformed in my soteriology (doctrine of salvation), I have gladly adopted the full or consistent Preterist position of eschatology. I have realized that it is the only Biblical system that truly cries “sola scriptura!” It allows the Scripture to interpret itself and upholds the law of hermeneutics – the grammatical-historical hermeneutic.

This study of “genea” has revealed additional insights as to how the KJV translators arbitrarily chose words which are inaccurate and which do not convey the true meaning of the original writers in many instances, especially so in passages with eschatological import.  This was true on a much larger degree with “mello,” but is also seen consistently with “genea.”  Translation issues aside, the real problems with “genea” stem from its misapplication by futurist scholars who refuse to acknowledge that Christ was definitively referring ONLY to HIS particular generation of people actually living when he walked the earth.  They insist that the word “generation” simply CANNOT be limited with regard to a SPECIFIC PEOPLE born at a SPECIFIC TIME and, like the translators, arbitrarily choose to endow the word “generation” with the magical properties of open-ended, multi-millenial elasticity!  And they MUST do this in order to pervert the true meaning of words to maintain their futurist eschatological heritage.  This is both dishonest and ridiculous.  It makes Jesus Christ out to be a false prophet and completely annihilates the established meaning of words.  Futurist Dr. Michael Brown repeatedly used the phrase “If words have ANY meaning…” (while ignoring it himself repeatedly) in his debate with Full Preterist Dr. Don Preston in early June of 2014 to defend his position that the Parousia could not possibly have already happened.  I use the very same phrase “If words have ANY meaning…” to demand that we stop WRESTING the scriptures and CEASE burdening them with our own private interpretations!  Let the scriptures interpret themselves!  Again, as it is written, may GOD be true, but every man a LIAR!




A New Testament Eschatological Study of Greek Mello – Part One

A New Testament Eschatological Study of Greek
Part One – “mello” [μέλλω]

Strong – G3195
A strengthened form of G3199 (through the idea of expectation); to intend, that is, be about to be, do, or suffer something (of persons or things, especially events; in the sense of purpose, duty, necessity, probability, possibility, or hesitation): – about, after that, be (almost), (that which is, things, + which was for) to come, intend, was to (be), mean, mind, be at the point, (be) ready, + return, shall (begin), (which, that) should (after, afterwards, hereafter) tarry, which was for, will, would, be yet.

Thayer – G3195
Thayer Definition:
1) to be about
1a) to be on the point of doing or suffering something
1b) to intend, have in mind, think to
Part of Speech: verb
A Related Word by Thayer’s/Strong’s Number: a strengthened form of G3199 (through the idea of expectation)

King James Concordance – Total KJV Occurrences: 82

should, 25
Mar_10:32, Luk_9:31, Luk_19:11, Luk_22:23, Luk_24:21, Joh_6:71, Joh_7:39, Joh_11:51, Joh_12:4, Joh_12:33, Joh_18:32, Act_11:28, Act_19:27, Act_20:38, Act_22:29, Act_23:27, Act_26:22-23 (2), Act_28:6, Gal_3:23, 1Th_3:4, 1Ti_1:16, Heb_11:8, 2Pe_2:6, Rev_6:11
come, 17
Mat_3:7, Mat_12:32, Luk_3:7, Act_24:25, Rom_5:14, Rom_8:38, 1Co_3:22, Eph_1:21, Col_2:17, 1Ti_4:8, 1Ti_6:19, Heb_6:5 (2), Heb_9:11, Heb_10:1, Heb_11:20, Heb_13:14
would, 9
Luk_10:1, Joh_6:6, Joh_6:15, Act_12:6, Act_16:27, Act_23:15, Act_23:20, Act_25:4, Act_27:30
will, 6
Mat_2:13, Joh_7:35 (2), Act_17:31, Act_27:10, Rev_3:16
about, 5
Act_3:3, Act_18:14, Act_20:3, Heb_8:5, Rev_10:4
ready, 4
Luk_7:2, Act_20:7, Rev_3:2, Rev_12:4
after, 3
Luk_13:9, Heb_11:8, 2Pe_2:6
almost, 1
at, 1
begin, 1
coming, 1
hereafter, 1
intend, 1
intending, 1
meaning, 1
minding, 1
point, 1
tarriest, 1
time, 1
yet, 1

Concordance to the Greek Scriptures – G3195
Total Occurrences: 124

εμελλεν (7)
Luk_9:31, Luk_10:1, Joh_6:6, Joh_11:51, Act_12:6, Act_16:27, Act_27:33
εμελλον (3)
Joh_7:39, Act_21:27, Rev_10:4
ημελλεν (7)
Luk_7:2, Luk_19:4, Joh_4:47, Joh_6:71, Joh_12:33, Joh_18:32, Heb_11:8
μελλει (17)
Mat_2:13, Mat_16:27, Mat_17:12, Mat_17:22, Luk_9:44, Luk_19:11, Joh_7:35 (2), Act_17:31, Act_23:3, Act_26:23, Rom_4:24, Rev_1:19, Rev_2:10, Rev_3:2, Rev_12:5, Rev_17:8
μελλειν (7)
Act_11:28, Act_19:27, Act_23:30, Act_24:15, Act_25:4, Act_27:10, Act_28:6
μελλεις (4)
Joh_14:22, Act_22:16, Act_22:26, Rev_2:10
μελλετε (2)
Act_5:35, Rom_8:13
μελλη (3)
Mar_13:4, Luk_21:7, Rev_10:7
μελλησετε (1)
μελλομεν (1)
μελλον (2)
Luk_13:9, 1Ti_6:19
μελλοντα (6)
Mar_10:32, Luk_21:36, Act_13:34, Act_23:27, Rom_8:38, 1Co_3:22
μελλοντας (3)
Act_3:3, Act_23:15, Heb_1:14
μελλοντες (6)
Act_20:13, Act_22:29, Act_23:20, Act_27:2, Jam_2:12, Rev_6:11
μελλοντι (3)
Mat_12:32, Act_20:3, Eph_1:21
μελλοντος (6)
Act_18:14, Act_24:25, Rom_5:14, 2Ti_4:1, Heb_6:5, Heb_10:27
μελλοντων (9)
Act_26:22, Act_27:30, Col_2:17, 1Ti_1:16, Heb_9:11, Heb_10:1, Heb_11:20, 2Pe_2:6, Rev_8:13
μελλουσαν (4)
Rom_8:18, Gal_3:23, Heb_2:5, Heb_13:14
μελλουσης (6)
Mat_3:7, Luk_3:7, 1Ti_4:8, 1Pe_5:1, Rev_3:10, Rev_12:4
μελλουσιν (2)
Joh_6:15, Act_20:38
μελλω (16)
Gen_25:22, Gen_43:25, Exo_4:12, Job_3:8, Job_19:25, Job_26:2, Psa_65:1, Pro_15:18, Isa_15:7, Isa_28:24, Isa_47:13, Isa_48:6, Isa_59:5, Jer_29:10, Mat_20:22, Rev_3:16
μελλων (9)
Mat_11:14, Luk_22:23, Luk_24:21, Joh_12:4, Act_20:7, Act_20:13, Act_21:37, Act_26:2, Heb_8:5

NT GREEK Concordance

Mat_2:13 Mat_3:7 Mat_11:14 Mat_12:32 Mat_16:27 Mat_17:12 Mat_17:22 Mat_20:22 Mat_24:6 Mar_10:32 Mar_13:4 Luk_3:7 Luk_7:2 Luk_9:31 Luk_9:44 Luk_10:1 Luk_13:9 Luk_19:4 Luk_19:11 Luk_21:7 Luk_21:36 Luk_22:23 Luk_24:21 Joh_4:47 Joh_6:6 Joh_6:15 Joh_6:71 Joh_7:35 Joh_7:39 Joh_11:51 Joh_12:4 Joh_12:33 Joh_14:22 Joh_18:32 Act_3:3 Act_5:35 Act_11:28 Act_12:6 Act_13:34 Act_16:27 Act_17:31 Act_18:14 Act_19:27 Act_20:3 Act_20:7 Act_20:13 Act_20:38 Act_21:27 Act_21:37 Act_22:16 Act_22:26 Act_22:29 Act_23:3 Act_23:15 Act_23:20 Act_23:27 Act_23:30 Act_24:15 Act_24:25 Act_25:4 Act_26:2 Act_26:22-23 Act_27:2 Act_27:10 Act_27:30 Act_27:33 Act_28:6 Rom_4:24 Rom_5:14 Rom_8:13 Rom_8:18 Rom_8:38 1Co_3:22 Gal_3:23 Eph_1:21 Col_2:17 1Th_3:4 1Ti_1:16 1Ti_4:8 1Ti_6:19 2Ti_4:1 Heb_1:14 Heb_2:5 Heb_6:5 Heb_8:5 Heb_9:11 Heb_10:1 Heb_10:27 Heb_11:8 Heb_11:20 Heb_13:14 Jam_2:12 1Pe_5:1 2Pe_2:6 Rev_1:19 Rev_2:10 Rev_3:2 Rev_3:10 Rev_3:16 Rev_6:11 Rev_8:13 Rev_10:4 Rev_10:7 Rev_12:4 Rev 12:5 Rev_17:8

Orange Verse Headers = Eschatological or Time/imminency statements involving “mello”
Blue Verse Headers = General Instances of “mello”
Red Scripture Text = Words of Christ

Original study text in purple by Donald Hochner, copied from
(with additional scripture references and comments in green by Kingdom Christian)

This is the first of five articles examining the Greek words as used in the Bible. I want to share with you why the full Preterist position is consistent with the Scripture, especially these passages that speak of things about to come. We are going to look into the lexicons with the Greek word “mello” (with its root words) which means “to be about to be, to be the point of doing” (Analytical Greek Lexicon, p. 262; Arndt, p. 500; Thayer, p. 396). I think this word “mello” is one of the most neglected English translations (NASB, KJV, NIV, etc.) of the eschatological passages in the NT. I was shocked to find out about this. The English translators may be guilty of removing or distorting God’s Holy Word (Deut. 4:2). I believe it is because of the futurists’ views that have affected or influenced translations of the Bible. This is pure eisegesis.

I would recommend you to check some books in Greek and English with the interlinear translation, “The New Englishman’s Concordance and Lexicon” and “Young’s Literal Translation of the Holy Bible.” These books may be very helpful for you. You will see why.
Mat 2:13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will [mello: IS ABOUT TO] seek the young child to destroy him.

Mat 3:7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath [mello: ABOUT] to come? (In this context, John the Baptist was preaching to the Jewish people. He warned the Jewish religious leaders about God’s wrath to come shortly and it happened in 66-70 AD (3 1/2 years). The Old Covenant temple and the city of Jerusalem were destroyed by the Roman armies. Many Jewish people had been completely scattered or killed and all these things were fulfilled in 70 AD. See Daniel 12:7-13 and Luke 21:5-36.)

Mat 11:14 And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for [mello: ABOUT] to come.

Mat 12:32 And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world [mello: ABOUT] to come. (Why did Jesus say it shall not be forgiven, either in this age OR the age about to come? He is speaking of sins committed in the time before the destruction of the Jewish temple before 70 AD (“this age”) and afterward (“the age to come”). We will study the Greek word “age” which is “aion” in Part Five.)

Mat 16:27-28 For the Son of man shall [mello: is ABOUT to] come in the glory of his Father with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works. Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom. (These passages are the most clear and straightforward from the mouth of Jesus Christ, otherwise He is a false prophet. This is why I believe Jesus returned in the glory of His Father with the angels to take the Kingdom away from God’s enemies and give it back to His Father who now is all in all.)

Mat 17:12 But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man [mello: is ABOUT to] suffer of them.

Mat 17:22 And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall [mello: is ABOUT to] be betrayed into the hands of men:

Mat 20:22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall [mello: am ABOUT to] drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able.

Mat 24:6 And ye shall [mello: are ABOUT to] hear of wars and rumours of wars: see that ye be not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. (Jesus was speaking to His disciples in their GENERATION. (Matt. 24:34 Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.) (See Part Two study of “genea.”)

Mar 10:32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should [mello: WERE ABOUT TO] happen unto him,

Mar 13:4 Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall [mello: are ABOUT to] be fulfilled?

Luk 3:7 Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath [mello: ABOUT] to come?

Luk 7:2 And a certain centurion’s servant, who was dear unto him, was sick, and ready [mello: ABOUT] to die.  (Proper translation, non-eschatological passage.)

Luk 9:31 Who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he should [mello: was ABOUT to] accomplish at Jerusalem.

Luk 9:44 Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall [mello: is ABOUT to] be delivered into the hands of men.

Luk 10:1 After these things the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city and place, whither he himself would [mello: was ABOUT to] come.

Luk 13:9 And if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt [mello: not TARRY/HESITATE to] cut it down.

Luk 19:4 And he ran before, and climbed up into a sycomore tree to see him: for he was [mello: ABOUT] to pass that way.

Luk 19:11 And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should [mello: was ABOUT to] immediately [parachrema: INSTANTLY] appear.

Luk 21:7 And they asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall [mello: are ABOUT to] come to pass?

Luk 21:36 Watch ye therefore, and pray always, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things that shall [mello: are ABOUT to] come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man. (The removal of “about to” here is complete eisegesis. The presence of “ye” several places in this chapter indicates Christ was speaking directly to his disciples, not to us or future third parties.)

Luk 22:23 And they began to enquire among themselves, which of them it was that should [mello: was ABOUT to] do this thing.

Luk 24:21 But we trusted that it had been he which should [mello: was ABOUT to] have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.

Joh 4:47 When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judaea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down, and heal his son: for he was at the point of death. [mello apothnesko] (Properly translated version of mello and apothnesko together, non-eschatological passage.)

Joh 6:6 And this he said to prove him: for he himself knew what he would [mello: was ABOUT to] do.

Joh 6:15 When Jesus therefore perceived that they would [mello: were ABOUT to] come and take him by force, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself alone.

Joh 6:71 He spake of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should [mello: was ABOUT to] betray him, being one of the twelve.

Joh 7:35 Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he [mello: is he ABOUT to] go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?

Joh 7:39 (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should [mello: were ABOUT to] receive: for the Holy Ghost was not yet given; because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)

Joh 11:51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should [mello: was ABOUT to] die for that nation;

Joh 12:4 Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, Simon’s son, which should [mello: was ABOUT to] betray him,

Joh 12:33 This he said, signifying what death he should [mello: was ABOUT to] die.

Joh 14:22 Judas saith unto him, not Iscariot, Lord, how is it that thou wilt [mello: are ABOUT to] manifest thyself unto us, and not unto the world?

Joh 18:32 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should [mello: was ABOUT to] die.

Act 3:3 Who seeing Peter and John about [mello: ABOUT] to go into the temple asked an alms. (A perfectly rendered instance of mello! Another non-eschatological verse.)

Act 5:35 And said unto them, Ye men of Israel, take heed to yourselves what ye intend [mello: are ABOUT] to do as touching these men. (Intend is acceptable here, but does not precisely convey the sense of intense urgency and imminence clearly evident in the context of this passage. They were preparing to slay these disciples.)

Act 11:28 And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit that there should [mello: was ABOUT to] be great dearth throughout all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius Caesar.

Act 12:6 And when Herod would have brought [mello: was ABOUT to bring] him forth, the same night Peter was sleeping between two soldiers, bound with two chains: and the keepers before the door kept the prison.

Act 13:34 And as concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to [maketi mello: no longer have in mind to, no more intend to] return to corruption, he said on this wise, I will give you the sure mercies of David.

Act 16:27 And the keeper of the prison awaking out of his sleep, and seeing the prison doors open, he drew out his sword, and would [mello: was ABOUT to] have killed himself, supposing that the prisoners had been fled.

Act 17:31 Because he hath appointed a day, in the which he will [mello: is ABOUT to] judge the world in righteousness by that man whom he hath ordained; whereof he hath given assurance unto all men, in that he hath raised him from the dead. (Paul made it very clear that God was ABOUT to judge the world in his generation. This is a strong case for the Preterist view of Scripture.)

Act 18:14 And when Paul was now about to [mello: ABOUT to] open his mouth, Gallio said unto the Jews, If it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O ye Jews, reason would that I should bear with you: (Another rare, but perfect rendering of mello here.  Again, a non-eschatological passage.)

Act 19:27 So that not only this our craft is in danger to be set at nought; but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and her magnificence should [mello kai: is ABOUT to] be destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worshippeth. (What is interesting here is that the english phrase “should be” is rendered twice in this verse, yet only the second instance contains the Greek “mello.”  These generic, “time-neutral” words such as “shall” and “should” are useless in conveying the true sense of urgency when the context clearly demands that urgency and imminence are both evident.  It is odd that in other passages, such as Acts 18:14 above, the translators have no problem rendering “mello” as “about to.”) 

Act 20:3 And there abode three months. And when the Jews laid wait for him, as he was about to [mello: ABOUT to] sail into Syria, he purposed to return through Macedonia. (Perfect rendering of mello here.  Non-eschatological passage.)

Act 20:7 And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples came together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready to [mello: ABOUT to] depart on the morrow; and continued his speech until midnight. (Perfectly acceptable rendering in proper context. Non-eschatological passage.)

Act 20:13 And we went before to ship, and sailed unto Assos, there intending [mello: ABOUT, INTENDING] to take in Paul: for so had he appointed, minding himself to go afoot. (Proper rendering of mello here as “intending.” “About to” would work also. Non-eschatological passage.)

Act 20:38 Sorrowing most of all for the words which he spake, that they should [mello: were ABOUT to] see his face no more. And they accompanied him unto the ship.

Act 21:27 And when the seven days were almost [mello: ABOUT to be] ended, the Jews which were of Asia, when they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the people, and laid hands on him, (Acceptable rendering of mello here as “almost.” Still conveys imminency. Non-eschatological passage.)

Act 21:37 And as Paul was to [mello: ABOUT to] be led into the castle, he said unto the chief captain, May I speak unto thee? Who said, Canst thou speak Greek?

Act 22:16 And now why tarriest [mello: HESITATE, TARRY, DELAY] thou? arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord. (“Tarriest” is a proper contextual rendering of mello here. The concept of “about to” rightly indicates and agrees with “tarry,” “hesitation,” or “delay,” but not multi-millenial, indefinite suspension!)

Act 22:26 When the centurion heard that, he went and told the chief captain, saying, Take heed what thou doest [mello poieo: are ABOUT to do]: for this man is a Roman.

Act 22:29 Then straightway they departed from him which should [mello: were ABOUT to] have examined him: and the chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that he was a Roman, and because he had bound him.

Act 23:3 Then said Paul unto him, God shall [mello: is ABOUT to] smite thee, thou whited wall: for sittest thou to judge me after the law, and commandest me to be smitten contrary to the law?

Act 23:15 Now therefore ye with the council signify to the chief captain that he bring him down unto you to morrow, as though ye would [mello: were ABOUT to] enquire something more perfectly concerning him: and we, or ever he come near, are ready to kill him.

Act 23:20 And he said, The Jews have agreed to desire thee that thou wouldest bring down Paul to morrow into the council, as though they would [mello: were ABOUT to] enquire somewhat of him more perfectly.

Act 23:27 This man was taken of the Jews, and should [mello: was ABOUT to] have been killed of them: then came I with an army, and rescued him, having understood that he was a Roman.

Act 23:30 And when it was told me how that the Jews laid wait for the man [epiboule eis ho aner mello esomai hupo ho Ioudiaous: “of a plot against the man about to be carried out by the Jews”], I sent straightway to thee, and gave commandment to his accusers also to say before thee what they had against him. Farewell.

Act 24:14-15 But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets: And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall [mello: is ABOUT to] be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust. (Again, Paul made it very clear. He was expecting everything that [was] written to be fulfilled very soon in his lifetime including the resurrection. Throughout the NT, we have seen the proclamation of the fulfillment of Israel’s promises for the gospel going “to the Jews first, then the Greek”; the on-going Post-Pentecost transition from the Old Covenant to the New which is a pervasive and emphatic testimony for first century imminence of the time of the end.)

Act 24:25 And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment [mello: ABOUT] to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.  (Young’s Literal Translation renders it “and the judgment that is about to be.” Felix didn’t tremble and send Paul away because of a judgment that was “to come” at some unknown, far distant undetermined time…he was afraid because Paul clearly and distinctly proclaimed it WAS ABOUT TO COME!)

Act 25:4 But Festus answered, that Paul should be kept at Caesarea, and that he himself would [mello: was ABOUT to] depart shortly thither.

Act 26:2 I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall [mello: am ABOUT to] answer for myself this day before thee touching all the things whereof I am accused of the Jews:

Act 26:22-23 Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should [mello: are ABOUT to] come: That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should [mello: is ABOUT to] shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles. (The things which were prophesied by Moses and the prophets were not related by THEM with a sense of imminency. However, for Paul, they WERE now imminent, as the appointed time for their fulfillment had drawn near. The use of “should” here is probably acceptable, as is “would” because, from the perspectives of the Old Testament prophets, these things were NOT imminent with regard to THEIR TIME. On the other hand, this is a MAJOR PROPHETIC STATEMENT by Paul that CLEARLY indicates he believed “those [things] which the prophets and Moses did say” are ABOUT TO COME! Clearly, Christ had already shown light with his message of the kingdom and by his miraculous life and resurrection, but it was now about to come in perfect fullness and radiance with the judgment, vengeance of the martyrs, resurrection, and kingdom establishment all happening at the same time…the Parousia in A.D. 70 where “all things that are written may be fulfilled.”)

Act 27:2 And entering into a ship of Adramyttium, we launched, meaning [mello: being ABOUT] to sail by the coasts of Asia; one Aristarchus, a Macedonian of Thessalonica, being with us. (“Meaning” or “intending” is acceptable for mello here. But Young’s Literal translates it as “being about to.”)

Act 27:10 And said unto them, Sirs, I perceive that this voyage will [mello: is ABOUT to] be with hurt and much damage, not only of the lading and ship, but also of our lives. (The translation of “will” for mello here is just too vague.)

Act 27:30 And as the shipmen were about to flee [zeteo pheugo: were seeking to flee] out of the ship, when they had let down the boat into the sea, under colour as though they would [mello: were ABOUT to] have cast anchors out of the foreship, (Curiously, the KJV translators render “zeteo pheugo” in the first portion of the passage as “were about to flee,” and then in the latter portion, they completely ignore “about to” and render “mello” vaguely as “would.” Why the inconsistency?)

Act 27:33 And while the day was coming on [mello: ABOUT to begin], Paul besought them all to take meat, saying, This day is the fourteenth day that ye have tarried and continued fasting, having taken nothing. (Nothing wrong with “coming on” here, just showing another example where “about to” works equally well.)

Act 28:6 Howbeit they looked when he should [mello: was ABOUT to] have swollen, or fallen down dead suddenly: but after they had looked a great while, and saw no harm come to him, they changed their minds, and said that he was a god. (Young’s Literal translates this as “when they were expecting him to about to be inflamed.”)

Rom 4:24 But for us also, to whom it shall [mello: is ABOUT to] be imputed, if we believe on him that raised up Jesus our Lord from the dead;

Rom 5:14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was [mello: is ABOUT] to come. (Young’s translates this portion of the passage as “who is a type of him who is coming.”)

Rom 8:13 For if ye live after the flesh, ye shall [mello: are ABOUT to] die: but if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live. (It is interesting to note that the KJV translators used “shall” in two places in this verse. Only the first instance involves mello. The second instance could rightly be translated “ye live” since mello is not present here in the text.)

Rom 8:18 For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall [mello: is ABOUT to] be revealed in us. (It is important to read the whole context of this passage in Rom 8:18-25.)

Rom 8:38-39 For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things [mello: ABOUT] to come, Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Notice things present (Mosaic Age) and things about to come (Messianic Age) are associated with death, life, angels, etc. which shall not able to separate us from the love of God.)

1Cor 3:21-23 Therefore let no man glory in men. For all things are yours; Whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things [mello: ABOUT] to come; all are yours; And ye are Christ’s; and Christ is God’s. (This is the very same message given in Rom 8:38-39 speaking of the Old and New Covenant “things present, or things ABOUT to come.”)

Gal 3:23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards [mello: ABOUT to] be revealed.

Eph 1:21 Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is [mello: ABOUT] to come: (It is very important to understand the meaning of “this age” (Old Covenant) and “the age about to come” (New Covenant) because it is the Jewish interpretation of eschatology. You will see this in Part Five.)

Col 2:16-17 Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the Sabbath days: Which are a shadow of things [mello: ABOUT] to come; but the body is of Christ. (These passages are the most important to understand the Old Covenant (Jewish festivals, ceremonial, promises, etc.) which was about to be completed in Christ. Some futurists believe all these things were completed at the cross, but it was not at the time of Paul’s writing. So, obviously we don’t practice these things for today because they were done away with in 70 AD.)

1Th 3:4 For verily, when we were with you, we told you before that we should [mello: were ABOUT to] suffer tribulation; even as it came to pass, and ye know.

1Ti 1:16 Howbeit for this cause I obtained mercy, that in me first Jesus Christ might shew forth all longsuffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter [mello: are ABOUT to] believe on him to life everlasting.

1Ti 4:8 For bodily exercise profiteth little: but godliness is profitable unto all things, having promise of the life that now is, and of that which is [mello: ABOUT] to come.

1Ti 6:19 Laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time [mello: ABOUT] to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.

2Ti 4:1 I charge thee therefore before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall [mello: is ABOUT to] judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom; (This verse would close the case against the Futurist’s views. At Christ’s return the wicked were judged and cast into eternal torment, the same place where all other wicked go at death. The righteous inherited resurrection life back in the presence of God for the first time since Adam, the representative of the human race, lost it in the Garden. Resurrection life is Paradise restored (Rev. 2:7). Jesus (the tree of life) gave us the eternal life.)

Heb 1:13-14 But to which of the angels said he at any time, Sit on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool? Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister for them who shall [mello: are ABOUT to] be heirs of salvation? (Christ crushed the head of all enemies even Death, and sat down at the right hand of His Father to reign eternally, whose kingdom shall have no end. Notice all the saints since the Fall are ABOUT to inherit salvation (redemption) in heaven.) (Dr. Michael Brown, Messianic Jewish Scholar, in his debate with Dr. Don Preston in June 2014, argued a futurist position, stating that, since death was still present on the earth, Christ must not have come. In doing so, Dr. Brown DIRECTLY belittles and denies the efficacy of the work of Christ in crushing the enemy of death, both at the cross and at his coming in AD70. This is the standard futurist modus operandi…to constantly demand literal fulfillments of spiritual truths.)

Heb 2:5 For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world [mello: ABOUT] to come, whereof we speak. (The Hebrew writer was discussing the Mosaic age that was “put into effect through angels” (Acts 7:53 “Who have received the law by the disposition of angels, and have not kept it.”). The new covenant world would be in subjection to Jesus, not angels. Note that the writer wrote to the first century audience “concerning which we are speaking.” They did not see everything subject in Jesus THEN because the 70 AD judgment had not yet occurred.)

Heb 6:5 And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world [mello: ABOUT] to come, (Also, the Greek “aion” here is mistranslated as “world.” But it really should consistently be translated “age.”)

Heb 8:5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to [mello: ABOUT to] make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount. (It is interesting to see mello properly translated as “about to” in passages where there is no possible eschatological significance, but elsewhere translated as something eschatologically neutral or futurist.)

Heb 9:11 But Christ being come an high priest of good things [mello: ABOUT] to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this building; (Read in Heb. 8:6-13, 9:8-12, 15. At the time of writing, the earthly temple was still there and Christ the High Priest had not yet been disclosed from the holy place in heaven. In the OT, the high priest sacrificed the animal and then brought the blood into the holy of holies on the Day of Atonement. When the high priest came out of the holy of holies, the actual atonement had been made (Leviticus 16:16-18). But the blood of bulls and goats did not take away sins (Heb. 10:4). Jesus already came out of the holy place and brought all of His elect into the glory of God in heaven. That is why all the elect, physical, Israel were saved by the time the Parousia took place at the destruction of the Temple as it is written in Rom. 11:5, 25-29 (c.f. Heb. 9:15, 28). Since then, all of God’s elect are no longer subject to Death (condemnation) and Hades (separation from God’s presence). I believe at death the elect shed their physical bodies, and continue living in their spiritual immortal bodies with God in heaven forever.)

Heb 10:1 For the law having a shadow of good things [mello: ABOUT] to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices which they offered year by year continually make the comers thereunto perfect. (The writer of Hebrews tried to remind the Jewish people about the promises of God which were about to be fulfilled in Christ.) (Obviously, the law was not a shadow of things that were IMMINENTLY “ABOUT” to come during the time the law was originally given. But those things WERE imminent and “about” to come at the time Hebrews was written. The OT prophets did not know the time nor the manner in which those things would actually occur which would later be NOW ABOUT TO COME in apostolic times.)

Heb 10:27 But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall [mello: is ABOUT to] devour the adversaries. (Again, the writer warned the Jewish people of their time to turn to Jesus Christ, otherwise they would face the wrath of God. Read Heb. 10:25-39. These verses are vivid.)

Heb 11:8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after [mello: was ABOUT to] receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out, not knowing whither he went.

Heb 11:20 By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau concerning things [mello: ABOUT] to come.

Heb 13:14 For here have we no continuing city, but we seek one [mello: ABOUT] to come. (Clearly, this verse is speaking of the New Jerusalem after the Old Jerusalem would be destroyed and rendered obsolete. Read Heb. 11:16, Rev. 21:1-7, 9-10.)

Jas 2:12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall [mello: are ABOUT to] be judged by the law of liberty.

1Pe 5:1 The elders which are among you I exhort, who am also an elder, and a witness of the sufferings of Christ, and also a partaker of the glory that shall [mello: is ABOUT to] be revealed: (Peter understood and he was expecting the glory that was about to revealed. Remember, he was inspired by God. Read carefully in 1 Peter 1:4-13, 20; 2:6-8; 4:7.)

2Pe 2:6 And turning the cities of Sodom and Gomorrha into ashes condemned them with an overthrow, making them an ensample unto those that after should [mello: were ABOUT to] live ungodly;

Rev 1:19 Write the things which thou hast seen, and the things which are, and the things which shall [mello: are ABOUT to] be hereafter; (In Rev. 1:9-20, these passages are “The things which thou hast seen.” In Rev. 2:1-3:22 are “The things which are,” and then in Rev. 4:1-22:5 are “the things which are ABOUT to be hereafter.” There are only three sections and notice the last section was about to take place in John’s generation. Read Rev. 1:1, 3; 22:6, 7, 10, 12, 20. We must NOT attempt to explain away the statements of imminence. That is the rule of the interpretation. Some try to use 2 Peter 3:8 (“that one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.”) to interpret the overwhelming abundance of the statements of imminence. However, their hermeneutic is unacceptable.)

Rev 2:10 Fear none of those things which thou shalt [mello: art ABOUT to] suffer: behold, the devil shall [mello: is ABOUT to] cast some of you into prison, that ye may be tried; and ye shall have tribulation ten days: be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.

Rev 3:2 Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready [mello: ABOUT] to die: for I have not found thy works perfect before God. (Mello rendered “ready” here is acceptable.)

Rev 3:10 Because thou hast kept the word of my patience, I also will keep thee from the hour of temptation, which shall [mello: is ABOUT to] come upon all the world, to try them that dwell upon the earth.

Rev 3:16 So then because thou art lukewarm, and neither cold nor hot, I will [mello: am ABOUT to] spue thee out of my mouth.

Rev 6:11 And white robes were given unto every one of them; and it was said unto them, that they should rest yet for a little season, until their fellowservants also and their brethren, that should [mello: were ABOUT to] be killed as they were, should be fulfilled.

Rev 8:13 And I beheld, and heard an angel flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet [mello: ABOUT] to sound!

Rev 10:4 And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices, I was about [mello: ABOUT] to write: and I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Seal up those things which the seven thunders uttered, and write them not. (Amazingly, the translators are quite happy to render “mello” here as “about”…yet elsewhere, they seem to go out of their way to render it anything BUT “about” apparently so as to avoid any sense of imminency or urgency and make the passage eschatologically neutral or futurist.)

Rev 10:7 But in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall [mello: is ABOUT to] begin to sound, the mystery of God should be finished, as he hath declared to his servants the prophets.

Rev 12:4 And his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth: and the dragon stood before the woman which was ready [mello: ABOUT] to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. (“Ready” or “about” are both acceptable here for mello. And there is no eschatological difference.)

Rev 12:5 And she brought forth a man child, who was [mello: is ABOUT] to rule all nations with a rod of iron: and her child was caught up unto God, and to his throne. (It is clearly about Jesus who was caught up to God and His throne in heaven, not on the earth. In John’s vision, Jesus was about to rule with a rod of iron.) (The translators chose to render mello here simply as “was” instead of “is about to.” This is a highly suspicious omission.)

Rev 17:8 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall [mello: is ABOUT to] ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is. (When mello is rendered properly here, this passage becomes a strikingly clear statement of imminence as this was a direct prophetic interpretation from one of the Seven Angels given to John ABOUT the vision as it unfolded before him.)
Here is a quote from Eusebius, the Christian historian in the late third century. This is what he wrote about James, the brother of the Lord, when James was in trial with the Jewish leaders, “And he (James) answered with a loud voice, ‘Why do ye ask me respecting Jesus the Son of Man? He is now sitting in the heavens, on the right hand of great Power, and is about to come on the clouds of heavens.’ in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History, p. 77 (emphasis mine).
So, the Preterist view is consistent with the Scriptures. Let the Scriptures interpret the Scriptures. Check the Greek words and some historians, and you will find the Preterist view has the strongest case against any other eschatological views. I don’t know how the Futurists would defend themselves with these passages which I have shown. We ought to “be diligent to present yourself approved to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, handling accurately the word of truth” (2 Tim. 2:15).
The Reformed Futurists (Amillennialism, Postmillennialism or Historic Premillennialism) cannot defend their eschatological views with dispensationalism, Charismatic and Pentecostal churches, Arminianism, Judaism, Liberal Theologians and the cults because they have some holes. Once the Reformed churches come into the full Preterist view, they will be able to defend the truth against the members of these false religions, and they will be able expose them with their errors. Reformed Preterists can make a big difference, no matter what others will think.
What do you think [about] all of this so far, especially after examining the Greek word “mello”? Hopefully this will help a lot and cause you to rethink the reasons for your eschatological view.
This study of “mello” has opened my eyes to the real possibility of eschatological bias on the part of scriptural translators for the King James Version of the bible. There are many places throughout the New Testament where “mello” is translated as “about to” in places where, to do so, has no eschatological connotations. Yet, in nearly ALL places where “mello” does have eschatological significance, a decided futurist or neutral rendering was used. The KJV translators quite consistently avoid properly rendering “mello” as “about to” in any scripture passage where the reader might possibly conclude by such rendering there was a strong, urgent sense of “imminence” with regard to fulfillment of prophetic statements and events expressly and exclusively within a first century time-frame. In my view, this is prima facie evidence of the presence of a decidedly futuristic eschatological bias. Whether such bias was intentionally and consciously applied during the rigors of translating holy writ, I cannot say. If it was done consciously and intentionally, then I would like to give the KJV translators the benefit of the doubt as to whether malice was also a factor. My instincts tell me that a futurist eschatological bias, while most likely applied consciously and intentionally, was probably not applied with malicious intent. It may also be that such a bias was applied subconsciously. However, all these questions aside, one cannot deny that the end effect of such futuristic biases in scriptural translation is to obscure, if not OBLITERATE, a wealth of ENORMOUSLY VITAL PROPHETIC TRUTHS. Truths regarding the timing, nature, and the PRESENT REALIZATION of the Kingdom of God have thus remained entirely undetected by the great majority of those who boldly profess that entrance into the Kingdom of God is the very PRIZE, the “Pearl of Great Price”, which they so earnestly seek. It is, then, of utmost importance and urgency that we continue to “study to shew ourselves approved unto God, rightly dividing the word of truth.” In doing so, we must not study with “rose colored glasses” on merely with the goal of protecting our pet eschatological or theological presuppositions. Instead, we must let SCRIPTURE interpret SCRIPTURE and seek to use the most honest and truth-worthy hermeneutics possible. If, in the process, our closely held “beliefs” fail to stand up to the truth we find in scripture, after having been “rightly divided,” then let our petty and unscriptural “beliefs” DIE and, as it is written, may GOD be true, but every man a LIAR.



22 Principles of General Biblical Interpretation

How to Eliminate Apparent Bible Contradictions

The following is an article repost from: which contains a fairly decent short list of some basic principles of Biblical hermeneutics which are a good staring point for developing sound interpretational skills.  Some of the statements in this article reflect conclusions based on a decidedly futurist eschatological view, but the rules are nonethless worthwhile.

Many Christians agree that the Word of God is “the Truth.” Yet from one Bible come thousands of differing interpretations about exactly what “the Truth” is. It was never God’s intention that people read the same document and come away with different ideas about what it is saying. God wants us all to be likeminded about His Word.

1 Corinthians 1:10
I appeal to you, brothers, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that all of you agree with one another so that there may be no divisions among you and that you may be perfectly united in mind and thought.

One of the major reasons why people have different ideas concerning what the Bible says is that they use different rules or standards for interpreting it. We believe that the following principles, called “canons of interpretation” are essential to understand and apply if there is to be any hope of Christians getting to the truth when they read the Bible.

1. The Bible was written for believers, not for skeptics.

The Bible was not written for unbelievers, but for those willing to search diligently for the truth. Some of the language of Scripture is written with the specific intent of confounding those who either do not have ears willing to hear or who are unwilling to be diligent in their study (Prov. 2:1-5; 25:2; Matt. 13:10-13). To arrive at the truth, one must have faith in God and trust in the integrity of His Word. It is important to be diligent in study and realize that God does not honor study for study’s sake. God will not open the understanding of those who are merely curious. The Christian must have a heart both to know and act on the knowledge he finds in Scripture. Prayer and faith that God will work in us are necessary for properly understanding the Bible and seeing its awesome precision and harmony.

2. The original text was perfect, and the Bible we have today is complete.

The Bible is the revealed Word of God, perfect in its original writing, including all books of the Old and New Testament, commonly recognized as the true canon of Scripture. Though there were more than 40 “writers,” there is but one “Author,” God. Since the canon of Scripture (the books which are recognized as authentic and authoritative) has been established by men, the possibility remains open that some text or book might have been added or removed from what God originally “breathed.” From our study, we are satisfied that this is not the case. The burden of proof, therefore, is upon those who doubt that the accepted canon of Scripture is indeed authoritative. They would have to show irreconcilable contradictions with the whole of Scripture. As far as we know, no one has ever done so, and all extra-biblical documents brought forth by critics of the canon as “left out of the original” have within them clear contradictions of the God-breathed text.

3. Principles of interpretation vary according to the literary form of the text involved.

The Bible contains language used for every purpose for which language is designed. There is narration, lists, salutations, conversation, poetry, song, fiction, parable, allegory, history, prayer, etc. Principles of interpretation vary according to which of these literary forms a passage is written in. For example, we would not employ the same rules of interpretation to the content of a parable that we would to a section of narrative.

The Bible is an accurate and inspired record of many events that were not inspired by God, and thus Scripture quotes the words of many men and women who were not speaking for God. The reader must carefully note who is speaking and/or acting. Unless God or Jesus Christ is speaking, or a passage is in narrative form, what is said or done by others may not be directly inspired by God. For example, the Pharisees said Jesus was Beelzebub, but of course that is not true. What they said was not true, but that they said it is true. What is inspired is the biblical witness itself, not necessarily every word and event that it bears witness of.

4. The original text was God-breathed and without error or contradiction.

The Bible, as the Word of God, cannot contradict itself. No teaching can be right if it creates contradictions with the clear teaching of other scriptures. The student must never take the position that there are contradictions or errors in the Word, but, if faced with an apparent contradiction or error, must continue to work until the pieces of the Word of God fit together perfectly like a well cut jigsaw puzzle. Patience, prayer and continued study may be necessary, and the pieces should never be “squeezed into place.” Time is not important—handling the Word honestly is.

5. Apparent contradictions or errors are due to transmission errors, mistranslation or misunderstanding.

Since the original text was perfect, apparent contradictions must be properly noted and attributed to one of the following three causes, and then they can be explained.

a. Our failure to understand the original meaning of what is written (remedied by #6 below).

b. An error in translation as translators attempted to reproduce the meanings from one language into another (remedied by #7 below).

c. An error resulting from the transmission of the text, as scribes who copied each manuscript made various mechanical mistakes or theological alterations to the text (remedied by #8 below).

6. Properly understanding the context is essential for proper interpretation.

The Bible must be read carefully, with appropriate attention paid to each detail of the context, because God has a purpose for what is said, who says it, where it is said, when it is said, how it is said, to whom it is said and why it is said. Logic demands that words and verses must not be wrested out of context and made to mean something foreign to the original meaning of the text.

7. There is no “perfect version.”

No version or translation can properly be called “the Word of God” as it was originally given by holy men of God (2 Pet. 1:21 – KJV). Every translation is inherently limited. It is impossible to translate from one language to another and get the sense of the original exactly correct, as any translator of any language will attest. Words in the original can contain figurative meanings or cultural meanings that simply cannot be brought into English, or cannot be brought into English without a lengthy explanation (which is the purpose of a Bible Commentary). Furthermore, the exact understanding of English words may vary from person to person and region to region (which is why different English dictionaries have varying meanings for the same word). If possible, therefore, a wide variety of translations must be consulted, and it is most helpful to develop a familiarity with the original languages.

8. No Hebrew, Greek or Aramaic manuscript is “God-breathed.”

Scholars do not believe that any of the “original autographs,” the texts actually written by Moses, David, John, Paul and others, exist today. Therefore, no one manuscript or Greek, Aramaic or Hebrew text is “God breathed,” as the original was. Furthermore, no text we have ever seen that has been assembled by a textual committee or text editor is “the Word of God.” We believe that the information exists to assemble a text that would be extremely close to the original, and research, especially now that it is being aided by computers, is ongoing to construct a text that is as close to the original as possible. At this time, to build a text resembling the original, alternative readings from a variety of text families must be consulted in search of the reading that is most likely to be the original, integrating that reading with both the context and the whole scope of Scripture.

9. It must be recognized that the great subject of the “Old Testament” is Jesus Christ.

The subject of the Bible from Genesis 3:15 to Revelation 22:21 is Jesus Christ, the Messiah. The “Old Testament (Covenant)” points to his coming and provides many symbols, types and foreshadowings of his life and ministry.

a. “The Old Testament” is a misnomer. The word “Testament” is in itself misleading. We get “testament” from the Latin word testamentum, which was the Latin translation of the Greek word diatheke. A “testament” is a statement or declaration (often given shortly before death). A covenant, on the other hand, is an agreement between two parties. The Greeks had no covenants and thus had no word for covenant. Any Hebrew reading “the Old Covenant” would immediately think, “Since this is a ‘covenant,’ if I accept it, what am I agreeing to do?” There are many covenants established by God in the course of redemption history. Each must be carefully noted as to whether it was conditional or unconditional, and whether it has been fulfilled in part or in whole. Because “the Old Covenant” actually refers to the Mosaic covenant that was fulfilled when Christ instituted a new covenant at his death, the Four Gospels are actually part of the “the Old Covenant.” Thus, when referring to the Books from Genesis to Malachi, “The Hebrew Scriptures”(or Tanakh) is the technically correct term.

b. The Four Gospels actually complete “The Old Testament” and record the inauguration of “The New Testament (Covenant).” Of course, there are a few verses in the Gospels that record events after the death and resurrection of Christ. The New Covenant had been technically instituted, but because the covenant promises had not been fulfilled, the people lived as if they were under the Old Covenant. It is often the case with covenants that there is a period of time between when they are actually instituted and when the promises made come to pass. God made a covenant with Abraham for the land, and it still has not been fully realized. Jonathan made a covenant with David, but died before any of the covenant promises came to pass. Just because the New Covenant was ratified “in Christ’s blood” does not mean that immediate changes went into effect.

c. The “New Testament (Covenant)” is initiated by the shedding of Christ’s blood, is partially enjoyed by the Church and is fulfilled in the Millennial Kingdom when God’s promises to Israel that are now held in abeyance are fulfilled.

10. The words in the Word must be carefully studied to determine if they have a unique biblical meaning.

As the Author of Holy Scripture, God can use words in a unique manner. Therefore, the words of God’s Word may need to be understood according to a unique biblical usage. One must first assume that God uses the words in the Word in their standard usage of the day. After thorough study, it may be determined that God has assigned a special meaning to a word.

a. Almost every word has a semantic range of usage that must be considered in order to determine what meaning (or meanings) is appropriate. When there are several possible meanings of a word, the context must determine the appropriate one.

b. Some words or phrases have more than one meaning that fits in the context, bringing a poetic richness to biblical language. These meanings do not contradict, but layer one truth upon another. This is apparent in modern language in the commonly employed figure of speech called double entendre.

c. It occasionally happens that a word will be used in two different ways in the same verse.

d. Where the Bible has already defined a term, it need not define it again, and its meaning should be kept consistent in the interpretation of various passages in which it occurs unless the context will not permit it.

11. The Bible should be understood literally whenever possible. 

[Caution!  This rule implies that literal interpretation is the “default” method.  That is somewhat misleading.  There is a dangerous, overly simplistic “rule of thumb” which many people use as their ONLY principle of hermeneutics:  “The Bible says what it means and means what it says!”  This “one-size-fits-all” heremeneutic mantra will lead to certain exegetical CATASTROPHE!  The bible is composed of many different types of literary styles, such as poetry, apocalyptic prophecy, parables, factual & historical narrative, etc.  A different interpretive mode is required for each style depending on the type of passage being interpreted. Understanding of “Special Hermeneutics” must be gained as described in Milton S. Terry’s excellent scholarly treatise on Biblical Hermeneutics. (TKC)]

The Bible should be understood to communicate literal and historical fact whenever and wherever possible. If understanding something literally creates a contradiction with a known fact or another scripture, a figure of speech is likely being employed.

a. As used by God in the Bible, figures of speech are usages of words or sentences that emphasize a particular truth. They are used for the purpose of giving additional force to the truth conveyed, emphasis to the statement of it or depth to its meaning.

b. If a word or words are used in a figure of speech, then that figure can be named and described, and the purpose of its use determined. As workmen of the Word, we are bound to diligently examine the figure of speech for the purpose of discovering and learning the truth that is thus emphasized. The study of figures of speech in the Bible is highly technical and quite exact. Calling something “a figure of speech” is never to be the refuge of those who simply do not want to believe the literal truth of a passage of Scripture. Some theological systems employ an allegorical interpretation of the Bible. This is not the proper way to handle God’s Word, and leads to false interpretations.

Figures of speech are identified in three categories: 1) idioms, 2) grammar and 3) syntax. Idioms are words or phrases peculiar to a particular language, often closely related to customs and history of a people. Figures of syntax include illustrative figures, types of rhetoric and changes in meaning. The names are derived from the Greek and Latin systems.

Identification of the figures of speech used in a particular verse can be crucial to its correct interpretation, and the presence and force of figures ought always to be considered by the Bible student.

12. The customs and culture of the biblical world must be understood. 

[Context and audience relevance are HUGE! (TKC)]

The Bible is written within the culture and thought forms of the Middle East. Its language sparkles with references to the everyday life and customs of the times in which it was written. While these references were well known to those who lived in Bible times, we must become familiar with their manner of life, idioms, customs and culture in order to arrive at the proper understanding of Scripture as it would have been understood in Bible times.

13. A knowledge of the structure of a passage can be valuable for interpretation.

God’s Word is the most intricate piece of literature that has ever been written, and scholars have long noticed that much of it has an easily discernible structure that adds beauty, helps with interpretation and testifies to the greatness of the Author, God. The structure of a passage of Scripture can clarify the main ideas, correspondence, parallelisms and contrasting ideas. Structure occurs in two basic forms:










E. W. Bullinger’s Companion Bible and How to Enjoy the Bible are good sources for more structure in Scripture.

14. Identical things must be distinguished from similar things.

The Bible often repeats the information contained in it. For example, the Four Gospels record many of the same events. Chronicles and Kings often repeat the same records. The Prophets often speak of things also recorded in other places in the Old Testament. Thus, there are many times when the same event is recorded with slightly differing details, or two different events are recorded that may, at first reading, appear to be the same event. The Bible must be carefully analyzed to determine that which is similar, but not identical, and that which may at first seem only similar, but which is in fact identical.

a. Things equal to the same thing are equal to (or identical with) each other.

b. The same individual, place or reality (like the new birth) may be called by different names.

c. Sharing similar attributes does not create identity, only similarity.

e. Sharing the same name does not create identity (e.g., both “Joshua” and “Jesus” = Yeshua).

15. God, like any other author, can use “literary license.”

God is the Author of the Bible, and therefore may employ literary license, changing the chronological order of a narrative or breaking up a narrative into a thematic presentation of events or concepts. “Scripture build-up” or “narrative development” describes the process of putting all the pieces together from various narratives into a complete picture.

a. 1 & 2 Samuel and 1 & 2 Kings are written from one perspective. 1 & 2 Chronicles covers the same basic events, but is written from another point of view and emphasizes different details.

b. The Four Gospels break up the entire literary portrait of the Savior into four prophesied perspectives: King, Servant, Man, Son. Matthew, Mark, Luke and John are written from each of these perspectives, respectively.

c. The Church Epistles are written from the perspective of doctrine (right belief and practice), reproof (where not believing or practicing rightly) and correction (where teaching error). Romans (faith), Ephesians (love) and Thessalonians (hope) are doctrinal epistles. 1 & 2 Corinthians and Philippians are reproof epistles. Galatians and Colossians are correction epistles.

16. The word “all” can be used in a universal or limited sense.

The word “all” or “every” is used in the Bible just as it is used in everyday speech and writing, either to mean “all without exception” or “all within a particular category.” The context will determine the meaning.

a. Sometimes general statements are contradicted by particular experiences or other scriptures. There are many proverbs that indicate that the righteous will prosper, but other verses say that sometimes the righteous suffer and the wicked prosper. The general statement is a “truism,” though not necessarily true in every case.

b. For example, the statement that “all men are liars” should not be taken to mean that Jesus, as a man, was a liar, or that women are not therefore liars.

17. The Bible is full of small words with big meanings.

[Study of the original languages of the biblical texts is VITAL here because many translations, expecially the KJV, are often ATROCIOUS when it comes to proper and consistent rendering of important definite articles. (TKC)]

Prepositions and conjunctions are especially important for directing the flow of thought in a context, and failure to notice their effect sometimes leads to massive error.

a. The biblical usage of the noun cases, especially the genitive (“of”) is important to discern properly.

b. The use of the article “the” must be carefully noted, especially when used with the words “holy spirit.”

c. The emphasis of the word “also” must be properly placed.

d. The use of “but” and “not” must be recognized for the degree of contrast or negation they signify in a passage.

18. Time, and time words, are essential to proper interpretation. 

[There is no possible way to overstate the importance of time words and imminency statements in the Bible.  Without doubt the time/imminencey statements are some of the most highly overlooked, ignored, and discounted passages in the Bible.  Many of them are almost completely obliterated due to erroneous translation of the Greek words “aion” and “mello”.  The doctrinal presuppositions and biases of the translaters can only be overcome with proper study and exegesis.  (TKC)]

Time words must be carefully noted in regard to whether an event occurs in the past, the present or the future. Similarly, the use of abstract biblical terms like “sanctification” or “justification” should be identified as to whether they are in the beginning, the middle or the end of a process (or perhaps some combination of the three), and whether the process is ongoing or has been completed in the past.

a. Sometimes two or more events happen simultaneously even if they are recorded at different times or in different books.

b. Sometimes a record is out of chronological order in a particular book, because chronology is of secondary importance in the relating of the narrative. The material may be organized thematically rather than chronologically.

19. It is important to understand biblical prophecy.

Prophecy as foretelling of the future must be distinguished by two criteria: prophecy that is conditional and prophecy that is unconditional. Prophecy must also be examined in light of whether it has been partially or completely fulfilled in the past, partially or completely fulfilled in the present, or is totally reserved for the future. Sometimes prophecy can be fulfilled in more than one way at more than one time.

[I suspect the above statements reflect presuppostional bias based on a futurist eschatological (futurist) view of the original author of this article.  Any supposed “double fulfillement” or “partial fulfillment” asserted my be proven within the content of the texts. Such cannot merely be alleged in order to fit one’s private theological or eschatological position. (TKC)]

20. It is necessary to distinguish between a believer’s permanent spiritual standing before God and his “walk.”

The believer’s spiritual standing before God and his experiential “walk” must be distinguished. His standing is the position and relationship he has with God, that which he has obtained by grace because of Christ’s accomplishments on his behalf. His “walk” is his actual life and experience, referring to the attitudes, words and actions that he manifests (Rom. 12:1; Eph. 4:1). For example, a Christian is righteous in the sight of God because of the saving work of Christ, which is why believers are called “saints” (literally “holy ones”). At the same time he may be lacking righteousness in his walk because his actions do not line up with the Word and will of God.

21. It is essential that the reader determine “to whom” a particular scripture is addressed.

[The principle of “Audience Relevance” is enormously important and is perhaps even more overlooked than the time and imminency statements in the Bible.  We must acknowledge that when we read the Bible WE ARE READING SOMEONE ELSE’S MAIL.  The Bible was written FOR US, but not written specifically TO US.  This fact can not be overstated! (TKC)]

Not every verse in the Bible is to be applied to every person in every age. For example, we do not sacrifice animals today because the verses commanding that are not addressed to us. As Christians, we must be careful to note those scriptures that are addressed to us and distinguish them from those not to us. Even though we can learn from the entire Bible, we are not necessarily supposed to obey every command in it.

a. Administrations (sometimes called “Dispensations”) must be divided accurately, and basic changes in God’s dealings with man discerned. These changes affect God’s commandments and what is and is not sin, such as in regard to dietary restrictions, the regulations of civil government, the mode of worship, financial giving, Church leadership, etc. [For further study read our booklet Defending Dispensationalism: Standing Fast in the Liberty.]

b. Because of differing expectations, commandments, etc., interpretation and application of Scripture must be determined in light of to whom each section of Scripture is addressed, whether it be Jews, Gentiles or the Church of God (1 Cor. 10:32).

c. To whom a particular book is addressed must be noted; sometimes this can change even in the middle of a particular passage (e.g., Rom. 11:13).

22. Difficult verses must be interpreted in light of clear verses.

The Bible contains many verses on many subjects, and some of them are easy to understand, while others are more difficult. Usually, it is the case that there are many more clear verses on a subject than difficult verses. Proper exegesis requires that difficult verses must be interpreted in the light of the many clear verses on the same subject. The scope of the entire Bible must be the final judge of what constitutes truth and error.




How Yeshua Messiah And The Apostles Interpreted Holy Scripture

A Critical Study Of Internal Hermeneutic Principles

The following post consists of notes I took while going through a video series on Biblical Hermeneutics by Don K. Preston, D.Div.  This information will absolutely open the eyes of your spiritual undertanding of the holy scriptures like never before.

There are what I have termed seven Internal Hermeneutic Principles which all Christians need to apply and understand in order to properly interpret the O.T. scriptures.  There are other important interpretive rules that are necessary which are external to scripture, but these are internal rules determined from scripture itself.  These principles explain and define the internal framework for how the New Testament apostles and Yeshua himself saw the O.T. scriptures, interpreted them, taught them, and applied them. I will now list these seven principle and provide the scriptural support references for each one. Please take time to go through these and review the scripture references.  Again, these are not the ONLY hermeneutics that are necessary for proper interpretation, but these are part of the overall set of principles by which we must approach scripture in order to obtain a proper exegesis of the intended meanings of the writers.  To ignore these rules or otherwise fail to apply them will result in serious doctrinal errors.


The N.T. writers were, themselves, Hebrews, writing about Hebrew promises found in the Hebrew O.T., and these N.T. writers AFFIRM they preached NOTHING but the “Hope of Israel” found in the O.T. They were looking forward to the fulfillment of the very same promises given to Old Covenant Israel which the O.T. prophets had already spoken of for hundreds of years and for which they all, both N.T. and O.T. prophets, sought diligently to obtain and comprehend.

Scripture References:

Acts 24:14-15 [KJV]
“But this I confess unto thee, that after the way which they call heresy, so worship I the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the law and in the prophets: And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.”

Acts 26:22-23 [KJV]
“Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue unto this day, witnessing both to small and great, saying none other things than those which the prophets and Moses did say should come: That Christ should suffer, and that he should be the first that should rise from the dead, and should shew light unto the people, and to the Gentiles.”

1 Peter 1:9-12 [KJV]
“Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls. Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.


Peter said the O.T. prophets did not understand either the TIME or MANNER (nature) of their own prophecies.  However, they did understand that the events they foretold would not be fulfilled or revealed in their day.

Scripture References:

1 Peter 1:9-12 [KJV]
“Receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls. Of which salvation the prophets have enquired and searched diligently, who prophesied of the grace that should come unto you: Searching what, or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did signify, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glory that should follow. Unto whom it was revealed, that not unto themselves, but unto us they did minister the things, which are now reported unto you by them that have preached the gospel unto you with the Holy Ghost sent down from heaven; which things the angels desire to look into.

Numbers 24:14-17 [KJV]
“And now, behold, I go unto my people: come therefore, and I will advertise thee what this people shall do to thy people in the latter days. And he took up his parable, and said, Balaam the son of Beor hath said, and the man whose eyes are open hath said: He hath said, which heard the words of God, and knew the knowledge of the most High, which saw the vision of the Almighty, falling into a trance, but having his eyes open: I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel, and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of Sheth.”

Daniel 8:26-27 [KJV]
“And the vision of the evening and the morning which was told is true: wherefore shut thou up the vision; for it shall be for many days. And I Daniel fainted, and was sick certain days; afterward I rose up, and did the king’s business; and I was astonished at the vision, but none understood it.

Daniel 12:6-9 [KJV]
“And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished. And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things? And he said, Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end.


The N.T. writers and Jesus Christ himself said that the TIME of the things foretold by the O.T. prophets had ARRIVED and they were then living in the prophesied LAST DAYS of Israel’s Old Covenant in the 1st century A.D.

Scripture References:

Luke 16:16 [KJV-Strongs]
The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.”

Matthew 13:17 [KJV-Strongs]
“For verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.

Hebrews 1:1-2 [KJV-Strongs]
“God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;”

1 John 2:18 [KJV-Strongs]
Little children, it is the last time: and as ye have heard that antichrist shall come, even now are there many antichrists; whereby we know that it is the last time.

1 Peter 4:5-7 [KJV-Strongs]
“Who shall give account to him that is ready to judge the quick and the dead. For for this cause was the gospel preached also to them that are dead, that they might be judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit. But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer.”

Luke 4:17-21 [KJV-Strongs]
“And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, To preach the acceptable year of the Lord. And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him. And he began to say unto them, This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears.

Acts 2:16-21 [KJV-Strongs]
But this is that which was spoken by the prophet Joel; And it shall come to pass in the last days, saith God, I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh: and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams: And on my servants and on my handmaidens I will pour out in those days of my Spirit; and they shall prophesy: And I will shew wonders in heaven above, and signs in the earth beneath; blood, and fire, and vapour of smoke: The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before that great and notable day of the Lord come: And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved.


The N.T. writers tell us emphatically that, THROUGH INSPIRATION AND REVELATION OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, THEY were now divinely interpreting and explaining the true time and meaning of the O.T. prophets.

Scripture References:

Romans 16:25-26 [KJV-Strongs]
“Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began, But now is made manifest, and by the scriptures of the prophets, according to the commandment of the everlasting God, made known to all nations for the obedience of faith:”

1 Corinthians 2:6 [KJV-Strongs]
Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought:”

Ephesians 3:3-5 [KJV-Strongs]
How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit;


The N.T. writers clearly demonstrate they are now interpreting the O.T. prophecies of the Kingdom, the Parousia, the Messianic Temple, Messianic Sacrifices, Messianic Priesthood, Salvation, and the Restoration and Regathering of Israel… being SPIRITUALLY FULFILLED REALITIES in the body of CHRIST!

Scripture References:

2 Corinthians 6:16 [KJV-Strongs]
And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.

Paul cites or draws from these verses in 2 Corinthians 6:16:

Exodus 29:45 [KJV-Strongs]
“And I will dwell among the children of Israel, and will be their God.”

Zechariah 2:10 [KJV-Strongs]
“Sing and rejoice, O daughter of Zion: for, lo, I come, and I will dwell in the midst of thee, saith the LORD.”

Leviticus 26:11-12 [KJV-Strongs]
“And I will set my tabernacle among you: and my soul shall not abhor you. And I will walk among you, and will be your God, and ye shall be my people.”

Ezekiel 37:24-28 [KJV-Strongs]
“And David my servant shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd: they shall also walk in my judgments, and observe my statutes, and do them. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt; and they shall dwell therein, even they, and their children, and their children’s children for ever: and my servant David shall be their prince for ever. Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them; it shall be an everlasting covenant with them: and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set my sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore. My tabernacle also shall be with them: yea, I will be their God, and they shall be my people. And the heathen shall know that I the LORD do sanctify Israel, when my sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for evermore.”

1 Peter 2:3-10 [KJV-Strongs]
“If so be ye have tasted that the Lord is gracious. To whom coming, as unto a living stone, disallowed indeed of men, but chosen of God, and precious, Ye also, as lively stones, are built up a spiritual house, an holy priesthood, to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable to God by Jesus Christ. Wherefore also it is contained in the scripture, Behold, I lay in Sion a chief corner stone, elect, precious: and he that believeth on him shall not be confounded. Unto you therefore which believe he is precious: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the head of the corner, And a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being disobedient: whereunto also they were appointed. But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light: Which in time past were not a people, but are now the people of God: which had not obtained mercy, but now have obtained mercy.

Peter cites or draws from these verses in 1 Peter 2:3-10:

Psalms 34:8 [KJV-Strongs]
“O taste and see that the LORD is good: blessed is the man that trusteth in him.”

Psalms 118:22 [KJV-Strongs]
“The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner.”

Isaiah 8:14 [KJV-Strongs]
“And he shall be for a sanctuary; but for a stone of stumbling and for a rock of offence to both the houses of Israel, for a gin and for a snare to the inhabitants of Jerusalem.”

Isaiah 28:16 [KJV-Strongs]
“Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a stone, a tried stone, a precious corner stone, a sure foundation: he that believeth shall not make haste.”

Isaiah 61:6 [KJV-Strongs]
“But ye shall be named the Priests of the LORD: men shall call you the Ministers of our God: ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boast yourselves.”

Hosea 2:23 [KJV-Strongs]
“And I will sow her unto me in the earth; and I will have mercy upon her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to them which were not my people, Thou art my people; and they shall say, Thou art my God.”


The N.T. writers tell us that ALL elements of Old Covenant Israel were only typological shadows, patterns, and examples pointing forward to their SPIRITUAL REALITIES IN CHRIST. These elements would include the holy city Jerusalem, the Temple, the People, the Land, the Altar, the Levitical Priesthood, the Feasts, Sabbaths, and Holy Days, and the Sacrifices…the entire cultus of Old Covenant Israel.

Scripture References:

Colossians 2:16 [KJV-Strongs]
“Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days:”

1 Corinthians 5:6-8 [KJV-Strongs]
“Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump? Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us: Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness; but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.”

Hebrews 9:19-28 [KJV-Strongs]
“For when Moses had spoken every precept to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and of goats, with water, and scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book, and all the people, Saying, This is the blood of the testament which God hath enjoined unto you. Moreover he sprinkled with blood both the tabernacle, and all the vessels of the ministry. And almost all things are by the law purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. It was therefore necessary that the patterns of things in the heavens should be purified with these; but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment: So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time without sin unto salvation.”

Hebrews 8:1-7 [KJV-Strongs]
“Now of the things which we have spoken this is the sum: We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in the heavens; A minister of the sanctuary, and of the true tabernacle, which the Lord pitched, and not man. For every high priest is ordained to offer gifts and sacrifices: wherefore it is of necessity that this man have somewhat also to offer. For if he were on earth, he should not be a priest, seeing that there are priests that offer gifts according to the law: Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, saith he, that thou make all things according to the pattern shewed to thee in the mount. But now hath he obtained a more excellent ministry, by how much also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which was established upon better promises. For if that first covenant had been faultless, then should no place have been sought for the second.”

1 Corinthians 10:1-11 [KJV-Strongs]
“Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; And did all eat the same spiritual meat; And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ. But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness. Now these things were our examples, to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted. Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them; as it is written, The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play. Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand. Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents. Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer. Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world [AGE = Greek “aion] are come.


In summary, the N.T. writers declared that because the O.T. prophets did not understand either the nature or time of their prophecies, and because the Old Covenant elements were typological of the New Covenant elements, and because the Holy Spirit was now revealing the TRUE manner and times of all these things through THEM, we MUST accept the final authority and word of Jesus Christ and his apostles concerning the final disposition of all these things.

Scripture References:

Hebrews 1:1-3 [KJV-Strongs]
God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto the fathers by the prophets, Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds; Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express image of his person, and upholding all things by the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high;”

John 14:26 [KJV-Strongs]
But the Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.

Mark 4:11 [KJV-Strongs]
And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:

Romans 16:25 [KJV-Strongs]
Now to him that is of power to stablish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of the mystery, which was kept secret since the world began,

1 Corinthians 2:7 [KJV-Strongs]
But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory:

Ephesians 1:9-10 [KJV-Strongs]
Having made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he hath purposed in himself: That in the dispensation of the fulness of times he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth; even in him:

Ephesians 3:3-6 [KJV-Strongs]
How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words, Whereby, when ye read, ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ) Which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed unto his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit; That the Gentiles should be fellowheirs, and of the same body, and partakers of his promise in Christ by the gospel:

Colossians 1:26 [KJV-Strongs]
Even the mystery which hath been hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to his saints:

There is a Youtube video playlist which is the source of this information, but I warn you, Don Preston is very thorough and there is some repetition of material between videos. However, I will provide the link here for anyone wishing to watch the series; it is WELL worth the time.  Preston is an excellent scholar and teacher.

Biblical Hermeneutics Video Playlist – Don K. Preston




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